All That You Need To Know About Dandy-Walker Syndrome

Dandy-Walker Syndrome (DWS), also known as Dandy-Walker Malformation (DWM), is a rare disorder of the human brain. This disorder or malformation impacts the development of the cerebellum, a part of the brain responsible for muscle coordination, balance, posture, and speech.

Due to this disorder, the normal flow of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) can be affected. This can result in the accumulation of too much CSF in the brain, causing a condition called hydrocephalus. The impact of the Dandy-Walker Syndrome typically lasts lifelong for a patient.

Who can get affected by Dandy-Walker Syndrome?

This disorder is a congenital condition that exists at birth. Infants belonging to both sexes can be affected by Dandy-Walker Syndrome. It is a genetic disorder that can occur sporadically. This syndrome impacts one in every 30,000 infants born alive.

What are the causes of this syndrome?

Dandy-Walker Syndrome is caused due to the partial or total failure of development of the cerebellar vermis that leads to the blockage of the CSF circulation. It is thought that various genetic and environmental factors can be responsible for someone to develop this rare congenital condition.

What are the symptoms of DWS?

The symptoms generally appear within one year after birth. Among the common symptoms of the syndrome are the following:

  • Delay in development of language and motor skills such as talking, crawling, walking, and sitting up
  • Poor muscle tone and muscle stiffness
  • Difficulty in balance and coordination
  • Unsteady eye movement, including jerky eye movement
  • Hearing and vision impairment
  • The occurrence of seizures or convulsions
  • Breathing difficulties or irregular patterns of breathing
  • Widened and flat veins visible in the skull
  • The increasing size of the skull leading to the abnormal growth of the head

How and when is Dandy-Walker Syndrome diagnosed?

The diagnosis of Dandy-Walker Syndrome can be done even before an infant is born. Tests to detect the syndrome before and after birth include the following:

  • High-resolution ultrasound screening is carried out during the second or third trimester of pregnancy to diagnose the syndrome
  • Fetal Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is done to confirm the diagnosis of the condition and to rule out other conditions that may appear to be similar to Dandy-Walker Syndrome in ultrasound screening
  • MRI after birth is done to confirm the syndrome and determine if any other complications are impacting the baby
  • Further imaging studies are done after birth, such as X-rays of the skull to determine its enlargement, MRI, and CT scan to check the shape and measure the size of the fourth ventricle, and ultrasound screening to determine hydrocephalus development.

In most cases, this syndrome is diagnosed in children in the early stages of their life. Some babies are born with normal ventricles but the signs of the syndrome start to appear when they reach about one year of age. In many cases, the syndrome is diagnosed in children when they are between three to four years of age. However, this syndrome has been known to be diagnosed in children as old as twelve years as well.

How can the condition be treated?

Treatment for Dandy-Walker Syndrome is aimed towards resolving the underlying symptoms and managing the complications that may arise due to the condition. Among the treatment options are:

  • Medications provided to check seizures
  • Physical therapy to help develop muscle tone and coordination
  • Speech therapy to improve language and speech
  • Occupational therapy to improve mobility skills such as walking, eating, managing simple daily chores, etc.
  • A surgical procedure called shunt may be carried out if severe hydrocephalus is observed in the patient. This procedure is done to reduce the intracranial pressure inside the skull by draining off the excess fluid gathered within the brain. It can bring relief to the patient from inflammation and some other problems that may occur due to intracranial pressure.

Since this is a rare condition, treatment needs to be done by knowledgeable doctors who are experienced in dealing with patients suffering from this syndrome. If you are looking for an expert doctor to consult about this syndrome, you can get expert advice and professional help at

How can Dandy-Walker Syndrome be prevented?

This syndrome is a genetic condition. As such, there is no specific method that can be applied to ensure prevention from it. Expecting parents can undergo genetic testing. Prenatal diagnosis can also be helpful to understand the risks associated with the condition. In case of a family history of the syndrome, genetic counseling can be helpful to evaluate the risks before planning to have a baby.

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Gallstone Surgery

What You Need to Know When Having Gallstone Surgery

Having surgery can be an anxiety-filled experience. However, the worries can be minimized by being aware of some important details about the procedure. It's either you try to forget everything about the surgery or learn some things about it, so you can be prepared as you go on the table.It goes without saying that you have to choose the best hospital and surgeons to have your operation with. If you have your gallstone surgery in London, for example, take the time to scrutinize the doctors who will work on you as well as the facilities and location. It also helps to know the following. Preparing for the surgery: Before you undergo surgery, you will be made to do some preparatory activities; one of which is to have your intestines cleaned. For this, a prescription solution may be given to you to facilitate the flushing of your stools and remove any accumulation in your intestines. This means that you should not eat anything the night before your surgery.Additionally, it is important to stop any medication as well as food supplements before surgery. The doctor usually instructs patients about this. If you have a condition that entails the continued use of a medication, the surgery may have to be postponed until you are fully healed. The intake of certain substances or chemicals may increase bleeding or create complications. You will be unconscious: The surgery to remove gallstones is called a cholecystectomy, a process which requires the use of general anaesthesia. This means that you will be unconscious throughout the operation. The anaesthesia is administered through a vein in your arm. To help you breathe while you are fully numbed, the doctors will insert a tube into your throat. The surgery may be an open procedure or performed through laparoscopy. Preparing for recovery: It is important that you have a plan for your recovery after the surgery. A cholecystectomy only takes a few hours, and the doctor can allow you to go home on the same day. You may only have to stay one or a few nights in the hospital if there are complications or if the procedure requires a longer incision in your abdomen.The doctors cannot always ascertain the extent of the invasiveness of the surgery beforehand, so it’s best to plan for the worst possible scenario. It is advisable to have someone with you as you go home and recover. If nobody can assist you at home during your recuperation, it is better to stay in the hospital for a few days until you are sure that you are nearly fully healed, and the wound is about to close up.Gallstone surgery has a 95% success rate, with 90% of patients typically discharged within 24 hours. There’s no reason to be overly anxious about it. You just need to prepare yourself mentally and physically. Be sure to follow the doctor’s instructions, and you can expect everything to proceed without problems.Read Also:7 Important Reasons For Breast Reduction Surgery How Can A Dallas Functional Medicine Doctor Help You?

Breast Augmentation

Breast Augmentation: procedure, benefits, and risks

If you are not satisfied with the size, shape, or contour of your breasts, you may want to consider breast implant surgery. Breast augmentation, also referred to as augmentation mammoplasty or breast implant surgery, is a procedure that involves using implants to help women who want fuller, larger breasts.Whether you are unhappy with the droopiness or size of your breasts after weight loss or pregnancy, breast augmentation may help. Breast implants may also correct disproportion or asymmetry in breast size instigated by growth problems. Need for breast augmentation The following conditions may indicate that you are a potential candidate for augmentation mammoplasty:Your breasts are too small There is asymmetry among your breasts You aren’t comfortable wearing a swimsuit or bodycon dress Clothes are often too large at the bustline The shape and size of your breasts have changed after losing weight Your breasts have lost their firmness after pregnancyBreast Augmentation in Asheville, NC If you’re considering breast augmentation, the most significant decision you’ll make is who will be performing the surgery. Breast implant surgery is the most commonly performed cosmetic surgery in the United States and a board-certified surgeon Dr. Marshall at Reveal Aesthetic Surgery, Ashville has perfected techniques for the best results. Breast enhancement is performed with either silicone or saline implants. Dr. Marshall evaluates personal preferences and individual factors to determine your right breast size, incision location and the placement of implants.In your one-hour consultation, Dr. Marshall will explain the pros and cons of the surgery, different types and shapes of implants. There are pluses and minuses to each, and he will take to the time to go over each required detail. How is breast augmentation performed? Usually performed with conscious sedation or general anesthesia, the following types of incisions can be employed in low-key areas of the breast to minimize visible scarring:Inframammary incision Periareolar incision Transaxillary incision Submammary incisionSome breast enhancements can be performed in a slightly invasive manner, utilizing endoscopes and with small incisions made in the armpit. The procedure typically takes about two hours or less. For detailed information on breast augmentation in Asheville, NC, you may consult Dr. Marshall. Benefits and risks Breast augmentation surgery has both physical and psychological benefits, ranging from improved self-esteem and self-confidence to the adoption of healthy habits. Many women have reported that they felt healthier and confident after the surgery. If one is unsatisfied with the way the implants look, they can be changed or replaced after a certain period of time.The potential risks of breast implants include infection, bleeding, scarring, breast pain, changes in sensation of the nipple and breast, rupture of implants, contraction, etc.To achieve the desired shape and size, you might have to undergo a set of procedures. When performed by a qualified cosmetic surgeon, augmentation mammoplasty is a safe surgery with long-lasting results. The best way to decide whether or not breast augmentation is right for you is to meet with a board-certified cosmetic surgeon Dr. Marshall at Reveal Aesthetic Surgery, Ashville.Read Also:Can Breast Augmentation Cause Cancer? The Top 6 Vitamins And Minerals All Women Over 40 Should Take Women Should Know About Vaginal Dryness And Its Treatment

Birth Injuries

3 Most Common Reasons For Birth Injuries In Florida

The term "birth injury" refers to any injury to an infant before, during, or after the delivery process.Some birth injuries are temporary and may resolve in a few days, but others are permanent and costly. The conditions that lead to birth injuries determine whether the birth injury is temporary or permanent.Undeniably babies are delicate and improper delivery may cause debilitating injuries. There is no doubt that medical malpractice is the most common reason for birth injuries, affecting the child and the mother for the rest of their lives.For this reason, a parent whose baby suffered birth injuries must take legal action against family doctors by consulting a birth trauma lawyer because most birth injuries are avoidable.Here Are Three Prime Reasons For Birth Injuries In FloridaBelow are the 3 most common birth injuries in Florida.1. Improper Or Poor TechniqueDuring the delivery of a newborn baby, the actions of an obstetrical caregiver are of the essence. Poor delivery techniques can leave the baby with lifetime disabilities and even cause death in worst-case scenarios. Undoubtedly, most parents trust the decisions of their healthcare providers, especially during the child delivery stage. In essence, parents rely on the expertise of medical professionals regardless of standard delivery or complications.Some of the improper techniques used by medical professionals include the following:The wrong use of forceps and vacuum extractorsRefusing to perform C-section so that the patient does not get shoulder dystociaFailure by healthcare professionals to handle maneuvers accuratelyApplying unnecessary force on the part of the baby's body like the head, neck, and shouldersMismanaging infectionsIn most cases, midwives and family doctors are to blame for poor delivery techniques. In difficult child delivery situations, they usually seek the assistance of qualified obstetricians, but this is usually only the case for some midwives and family doctors. Even though obstetricians are experts at handling difficult birth situations, they sometimes make mistakes.Some of the injuries that are caused by improper delivery techniques include the following:Cerebral palsyDevelopment delaysDeath of the babyBrachial plexus injuriesSuppose you or your baby were injured due to improper techniques that family doctors or midwives applied. In that case, it only takes a birth trauma lawyer to review the circumstances under which birth injuries occurred. It is the lawyer's responsibility to assist you in identifying the midwives or family doctors who need to be brought to justice.2. Inappropriate Use Of EquipmentAs previously mentioned, parents often trust doctors' hands when they enter the labor room, hoping they will deliver safely. 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Injuries may occur if the doctor fails to use the tools appropriately or exerts too much force when they apply the tools mentioned above.Below are the types of injuries that result from inappropriate use of equipment:Head injuries- scalp swelling and blood pooling between the skulls occur when a family doctor misuses equipment leading to severe brain damageNeck and face injuries -when delivery tools are misapplied, the baby can suffer from lacerations and broken bones, among other birth injuriesArm and shoulder injuries like clavicle fractures and brachial plexus injuries can occur if forceps and vacuum extractors are used incorrectlyIf your child has suffered birth injuries following the inappropriate use of equipment, like forceps and vacuum extractors, consulting a birth trauma lawyer makes perfect sense so that you can discuss a possible malpractice claim.3. Wrong Or Lack Of Decision By The Physician Or Medical StaffIn most cases, babies are delivered safely. However, there are situations where a baby could suffer injuries when a doctor or any other healthcare professional makes a wrong decision that directly or indirectly leads to physical damage to the baby or mother. Many reasons lead to birth injuries, but it can be devastating when birth injuries occur due to wrong decisions.For instance, a baby may be deprived of oxygen during birth or stay in the canal too long. The doctor can also misjudge when the mother should undergo a C-section or when an expected delivery proves challenging. All these decisions are considered medical malpractice because, in one way or another, they leave the baby or the mother with long-term complications.In worst-case scenarios, doing the wrong thing or delaying the right decision often leads to more permanent consequences like nerve damage, mental development issues, and deformities. Treating these conditions is costly and may last for a lifetime.Because some of these birth injuries are avoidable, as a parent, it would be advisable to take legal action against those involved by consulting a birth trauma lawyer if you or your child suffered as a result of a poor decision or no decision at all by a healthcare provider.Consult And Work With A Professional Birth Trauma LawyerIt is devastating to lose or see your child suffer for the rest of their life due to medical malpractice during birth. If you have a child who died or was injured at birth, it is imperative to seek justice by consulting a professional birth trauma lawyer.When a child suffers a permanent condition due to a birth injury or medical malpractice, you may be entitled to compensation for the costs associated with the care.Read Also:What Is Considered A Personal Injury?5 Common Types Of Personal Injury Cases7 Most Common Types Of Wrongful Death Cases