What is a CMOS camera?


07 July 2018


CMOS camera

A lot has been written about CMOS digital cameras. However, debates have arisen about the merits and demerits between CCD and CMOS digital cameras. The arguments continue and people have not come up with a conclusion. Nonetheless, it is not surprising that they have not come up with a definite answer since everyone has their preferences. Markets and technologies change with time influencing prices and technical feasibility. There are different imager applications, and they have different and evolving requirements. Some applications work better with CMOS imagers while some work better with CCDs, but this does not mean that one does not outperform the other.

CCD and CMOS image sensors :

With the advent of social media, today, everyone is buying a digital camera. Every digital camera has CCD or CMOS sensor to convert light into electric signals, but even though these sensors serve the same purpose, they have some differences which affect the camera prices and the quality of the image produced. CCD (charged coupling devices) was used in pioneer cameras for image conversion from to digital pixels from analog signals of light. Due to the manufacturing process used, conversion occurs in the chip, and this reduces distortion by creating high-quality sensors that produce clear images. Nonetheless, since they need a unique manufacturing process, they end up being pricier than the CMOS.

On the other hand, to transmit a charge through traditional wires, CMOS (Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor) utilize transistors for each pixel. Since each pixel is treated individually, flexibility is guaranteed. The CMOS is made through traditional manufacturing processes just like creating microchips making them easier to produce and cheaper than CCD sensors. They are the reason digital cameras are more affordable.

CCD sensors are different from CMOS sensors since, with their low nose or grain, they create high-quality images. However, CMOS also create high-quality images but with high noise or grain. At the right exposure, more light is required for CMOS to produce images with low noise but CCD sensors have more elevated light sensitivity. Nonetheless, this does not imply that CMOS sensors have utmost inferiority to CCD sensors since unlike CMOS that was invented some years ago, CCD sensors have been used in digital cameras for a long time and the technology used has been advanced over the years. CMOS sensors are also gradually being advanced and they will soon catch-up and match up with CCD sensors in terms of revolution and entire quality.

With the assurance of higher integration for smaller components and lower power consumption CMOS designers focus on adapting it for the highest volume image sensor application in the world, mobile phones. Designers have invested a lot to develop and fine-tune CMOS images and manufacturing processes. Due to this investment, image quality has greatly improved, and pixel sizes have even reduced. Considering the high volume consumers and line scan imagers, CMOS imagers outperform CCDs based on almost each performance parameter imaginable.

Comparison between CMOS and CCDs :

CMOS outperform CCDs, machine noise and speed being the key parameters. Conversion of signals from single charge to analog charge and finally to analog signals is different in CCDs and CMOS. CMOS ‘data path is highly parallel in area and line sensor imagers. This causes low bandwidth in each amplifier. By the time they reach the interface between the imagers and the off-chip circuitry, the data path bottleneck, CMOS are firmly ingrained in the digital domain. Conversely, due to their high speed, the output channels in CCDs are more parallel, but they cannot match up the parallelism in COSMOS imagers. Hence, every CCD imager possesses a high bandwidth causing high noise. Nevertheless, CMOS imagers, owing to their high speed, can be designed to lower noise, unlike high-speed CCDs.

Besides the performance differences between CCD and CMOS imagers, businessmen also focus on value. It is difficult to value the cost of pictures, but leverage could be used as a great value indicator. Currently, the images in the market are cheaper than custom imagers regardless of whether they are CMOS or CCD imagers. If you need to customize the imager, compared to CMOS imagers, it is less expensive to develop custom CCD. Developing CMOS imagers is pricier because the sub-micron used are deeper and more expensive. The circuitry needed to design CMOS is also higher, and even though this makes better performing custom CMOS imagers, CCD’s value proposition is still more favorable.

Final thoughts on CCDs and CMOS :

Currently, CCD cameras have higher quality images with higher resolution but CMOS technology is being advanced day by day, and due to its longer battery life and cheaper manufacturing methods, it is bound to capture and even overtake CCD cameras. Some years to come, CMOS will become the norm of digital cameras until new technology comes up.

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How The Metaverse Will Change The World

The Metaverse is that ever-growing, evolving virtual reality we're all familiar with. We can't speak to it and touch it like we can with the real world, but its impact is felt by those who have the luxury of entering it. It's an ethereal existence that motivates people to create new things and inspires innovation - in short. It's changing society for the better. It's difficult to say exactly; what this means for society as a whole, but there are plenty of early indicators, from businesses taking on metaverse design processes in their everyday work to a surge in interest from members of academia.  How Does Metaverse Change The World?  It allows us to do things that otherwise would be impossible or simply hadn't even been considered possible. 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However, there is one thing that everyone can agree on: as our technological capabilities grow, so too does our potential for affecting the world around us.  With that said, there are plenty of ways to improve this society - from being safe online to protecting ourselves from cybercrime at home and work and ensuring our privacy on social networks - it's important for everyone to be aware of what their options are when it comes time for them to take action. How Is The Metaverse Changing Our lives? The Metaverse technology used to simulate virtual environments has a long history. Many decades ago, it was rudimentary in its construction: a pair of flat panels, a computer, and a single monitor. This was known as Head Mounted Display.  1. Physical Augmented Reality Then came Physical Augmented Reality (PAR), which involved superimposing virtual images over your real-world view - these were known as head-mounted displays, such as Google Glass and Microsoft's HoloLens. These were limited in their use but still had potential. However, now we are able to utilize Mixed Reality (MR), which is an amalgamation of the previous two types of AR. By combining augmented and virtual reality together we can create a totally new type of experience - one that brings the best of both worlds together into one world. 2. Metaverse Education The Metaverse isn't just another technology - it's something that can actually affect our lives in meaningful ways. Whether it's in the way we communicate with each other, allowing us to freely express our emotions, or even how we can utilize the metaverse in education, there's so much that this new technology can offer.  As such, many people are already looking at new ways to utilize the metaverse for a variety of reasons. 3. Virtual Marketplace There are a number of possibilities - from creating a virtual marketplace where you can buy products and services to changing your appearance in the metaverse to how you look in real life.  While you might have to wait for a bit before this becomes a reality, it's possible that the technology we'll use to create it is already here. One of the most obvious ways in which we can utilize VR is by using it as an educational tool. For example, schools are currently using tools that provide mixed reality simulations allowing children to interact with virtual worlds in a safe environment without fear of harm. Schools are also using the technology therapeutically, allowing children to learn more about their emotions and how they can be managed effectively. 4. Medical Industry Usages While companies like Microsoft have been busy on the AR/MR front, others have been busy integrating AR into various industries.  The medical industry is one such field - surgeons are able to clearly see a patient's anatomy while they perform surgery, while pharmaceutical companies can create and utilize augmented reality interfaces to understand the drug-body interactions better.  A metaverse is a useful tool for an array of different fields - one that will continue to be developed as AR/MR technology evolves in the years ahead. Technologies Still In Their Early Developing Stages While it's true that people have been able to use AR/MR technology for some time now, it has only recently become a viable tool in the home. Google's Cardboard, for example, is an inexpensive VR viewer that utilizes your smartphone as a display.  Merge that with Google Street View, and you have a rough approximation of what the metaverse will look like - eventually. However, until we have an actual metaverse at our disposal, we'll continue to utilize these technologies as they get better and better. The development of virtual reality is one of the first steps towards this potential future. Once the hardware is developed, we'll be able to take a look at the virtual world from within. This has been made possible through our ability to manipulate sensor data and image-based media, which allows us to simulate anything we want without actually needing to build it first. Conclusion: Once this is achieved, we'll be able to truly dive into the metaverse - a reality where our minds and bodies are still in control of what's going on around us. As such, this will be a far more realistic representation of reality than anything that's come before it. Read Also: How New POS Technology is Advancing Merchant Processing 5 Ways Technology Will Change the Hospitality Industry Post Covid-19 Pandemic How Cutting Edge Technology is Helping Dubai Improve its Healthcare Services

Mac clean Problems

How to clean up your Mac without any Problems?

If you’re the regular user of Mac, then you may already be experiencing that your Mac slows down if there are no cleanups time to time. Here is the quick guide to clean up your Mac without any problems. Delete the Large Unused Apps : Many users have unused applications that are big and occupy the ample space on your Mac. With the view to clean up the Mac, make a note that you need the macOS Sierra or later version to have the cleaning characteristic operating. The earlier version lacks the storage control device. Make certain that you have taken the entire backup earlier than deleting the apps. Take the following steps for cleaning up the large unused apps. 1. Go to the Apple menu, choose the ‘About this Mac’. 2. Select the Storage option on the window that prompts up and clicks the Manage. 3. Select the application that is available on the corner of the screen to the left. 4. Choose the size menu and click to the drop down to have the list of apps from largest to smallest. 5. You can also check the last access to the apps. 6. Locate the list of apps that you no longer need and delete them by clicking 'X’ button. 7. Select the ‘Remove’ button in the prompting window. Clean the Cache : The top reason for slowing down your Mac is the cache that accumulates over the passage of time. Caches are the temporary files that enhance the speed of the data when reloaded again. These caches can be app cache, library cache, browser cache, system cache and plenty of more. For in-depth details on cleaning up your Mac, you can visit this page. Actually deleting them won’t solve your problem as there is the leftover which develops over the period of time. Follow the under-noted method to absolutely clean the cache. Select the Finder logo from the dock. Click the Go menu which can be found in the upper corner to the left. Select ‘Go to Folder’ Get the list of caches by typing ~/Library/Caches Lastly, right-click the folder and sent it to the trash and then empty it. Uninstall Unused Applications : This is one of the essential steps in cleaning up the Mac. The primary area that is consumed on the Mac is through applications. You need to delete at least the unused apps from the Mac. If you think that by sending those to trash can delete the app then you’re truly incorrect and as there are several leftovers by the app that occupies the space in the memory. In order to clean them absolutely, you must navigate through the beneath folders and trash them. App preferences are located in ~/Library/Preferences/ Support Caches can be found in /Library/Caches/ and ~/Library/Caches App states are found in ~/Library/Saved Application State/ Application files are found in ~/Library/Caches. Binary and dock icons are found in /Applications/ Crashes are located in ~/Library/Application Support/CrashReporter/ Plugins can be found in ~/Library/Address Book Plug-Ins/ The library can be located in ~/Library/ Remove Apps Consuming More Power : There are some apps that eat up the extra power while running. You should use the activity monitor to see the apps that are consuming more power. In fact, you will easily see the five specific details including CPU, Memory, Energy, Disk, and Network. For the Mac to run the problem-free, you have to select the ‘-‘ button and clear away the apps that you think is occupying extra power and they are unused too. Delete the Large Files : This is one of the crucial ways of cleaning up the Mac. You can carry out this effortlessly and quick by using Finder. Open the new window within the Finder. You may be able to see the search box in the top right corner of the display screen. Press asterisk inside the search box. Add the “+” which you will be able to see below the search box. Apply two filters in that window. First one for the size and the second one for the ‘is greater than’. Enter the size say 30 GB. You could also choose the alternative column for GB or MB. Whilst you apply those filters, you will able to see the effects matching your criteria. These are the essential ways that help you to clean up the Mac without any problems. Follow them and you can have the best performing Mac. Read Also : 7 Essential Apps For Your Mac In 2018 How To Free Up Space On Your Mac

Python For Robotics

Python For Robotics: Programming And Controlling Intelligent Robots

In the dynamic world of technology, the synergy between programming and robotics has paved the way for incredible innovations. Python, a versatile and user-friendly programming language, has emerged as a powerful tool for programming and controlling intelligent robots. This article delves into the fascinating realm of robotics powered by Python, exploring how this language is transforming the field and enabling the creation of advanced robotic systems. The Role Of Python In Robotics Python's popularity in robotics is attributed to its readability, simplicity, and rich ecosystem of libraries that streamline development. As robots become more sophisticated and capable of handling complex tasks, the need for a programming language that can handle diverse functionalities becomes paramount. Python fits this requirement perfectly by offering libraries that cover everything from machine learning and computer vision to control systems and sensor integration. Creating Robot Behaviors With Python One of the fundamental aspects of robotics is programming robots to exhibit desired behaviors. Python's concise syntax and extensive libraries make this process intuitive and efficient. Through libraries like pyRobotics and ROS (Robot Operating System), developers can write code to control robot movements, manipulate objects, perceive the environment, and interact with humans. Python's adaptability is particularly evident in simulation environments like Gazebo and V-REP, where developers can model, test, and visualize their robot behaviors before deploying them to real hardware. This iterative process helps in refining algorithms and reducing errors during the physical implementation. Computer Vision And Perception Python's prowess in computer vision has revolutionized robotics' ability to perceive and understand the world around them. Libraries like OpenCV and scikit-image enable robots to process images and videos, enabling tasks like object detection, tracking, and even facial recognition. With these capabilities, robots can interact with their surroundings, identify objects, and make decisions based on visual data. For instance, Python's computer vision capabilities are instrumental in applications like autonomous vehicles, where robots need to detect and interpret traffic signs, pedestrians, and other vehicles to navigate safely. As the field of robotics continues to expand, finding skilled Python developers who can harness these capabilities to develop innovative robotic systems is crucial. If you're seeking to build a team of adept Python developers for your robotics projects, you can explore potential candidates at https://lemon.io/hire-python-developers/. Machine Learning And Robotics Machine learning is a driving force behind many robotic advancements, from teaching robots to learn from their experiences to enabling them to adapt to dynamic environments. Python's libraries, including TensorFlow, PyTorch, and sci-kit-learn, empower developers to implement complex machine learning algorithms for tasks like motion planning, object manipulation, and even natural language processing in human-robot interaction. Reinforcement learning, a subset of machine learning, is particularly valuable for robotics. Through reward-based learning, robots can learn optimal behaviors through trial and error, making them adaptable to unpredictable scenarios. Python's support for reinforcement learning libraries like Stable Baselines and RLlib facilitates the development of intelligent, learning-based robotic systems. Sensor Integration And Control Systems Efficient robotic systems heavily rely on accurate sensor data and precise control mechanisms. Python's compatibility with hardware interfaces and sensor libraries makes it a suitable choice for integrating sensors such as LiDAR, cameras, ultrasonic sensors, and more. Python's simplicity extends to control systems as well. Whether it's creating PID (Proportional-Integral-Derivative) controllers or implementing complex feedback control algorithms, Python's mathematical libraries and its real-time capabilities allow developers to fine-tune and optimize robot movements and responses. Robotics Simulation And Rapid Prototyping Python's role in robotics isn't limited to physical implementation. Simulation environments like Gazebo and V-REP enable developers to create virtual replicas of robots, test algorithms, and refine behaviors in a risk-free environment. This approach drastically reduces development time and costs by identifying potential issues before they occur in real-world scenarios. Moreover, Python's scripting capabilities enable researchers and developers to automate simulation scenarios, making it easier to conduct large-scale experiments and gather data for analysis. Challenges And Future Prospects While Python offers numerous advantages for robotics, it's not without challenges. Real-time constraints, which are critical in robotics, can sometimes limit Python's performance. However, advancements in libraries like Cython and the use of Python in conjunction with languages like C++ help mitigate these challenges. As technology evolves, the future of Python in robotics looks promising. With ongoing developments in libraries, frameworks, and hardware interfaces, Python's role in creating smarter, more capable robots is set to expand further. Can I Enable A Robot Along With Python?  Up till now, we took you through the basic concepts. But it is time to see how Python is actually helpful for actualizing a robot. Our instances will consist of the following: Python Frameworks Use Case A Vision-based robot for mobile navigation It is easier to use the prebuilt Python and its Robot Programming runtime environment, particularly for Linux or Windows. The Python scripts above are responsible for controlling the robot. The latter can be assembled in various ways.  Robot Assembly It is important to arrange the wheels arranged exactly like a usual vehicle. However, it is equally important to fit ultrasonic sensors at both the front and rear of the chassis. Hence, the camera is mounted at a slightly elevated position right at the chassis front. Do not forget to connect it directly to the Nano. As for motors, there must be a proper interface along with a motor driver.  Robot Programming  Start working on the Raspberry Pi after the installation of the Programming environment. Your primary Python script must import the sonar modules, motor, and camera. We have to utilize a model that already comes with training in the OpenCV-Python association. It helps in detecting multiple images at a single time. Conclusion The marriage of Python and robotics has redefined the boundaries of what robots can achieve. From enhancing perception with computer vision to enabling learning through machine learning algorithms, Python has become a linchpin in the creation of intelligent robotic systems. It has a user-friendly syntax, expansive libraries, and compatibility with various hardware interfaces. This places Python as an ideal choice for both novice roboticists and seasoned experts. Read Also: How to Become a Hacker: X Steps to Follow 7 Advantages of Using Website Design Templates About FuseLab Creative