The Difference Between Bacterial Amylase and Fungal Amylase


03 November 2022


Bacterial Amylase

If you are looking for an enzyme that degrades starch, then you should know the difference between fungal and bacterial amylase.

Both enzymes function to break down starch and inhibit its recrystallization.

Bacterial amylases are more effective than those from fungi.


The purified enzymes exhibit a pH range of 6.5 and an optimum temperature of 60degC. Outside these ranges, the enzyme loses activity. It has minimal activity at 35-40degC and no activity at 2.5-3.5 pH. However, at 60degC and a pH of 6.5, the enzyme retains 50% activity.

A-amylase is obtained from Bacillus licheniformis, which has a trading name of “Termamyl”. Microbial a-amylases are generally used in industrial processes and detergent applications, but they are also being studied for their potential as bioethanol biocatalysts. Hyperthermophilic amylases offer even greater bioethanol production capabilities.

The TAKA-amylase has a characteristic a-amylase fold and contains an insertion domain with a calcium-binding site. This enzyme is similar to a bacterial amylase but contains a distinct fold. Its b/a8-barrel insertion domain and C-terminal b-sandwich domain were studied using inhibitors to identify the active site.

The crude extract of -amylase contains approximately 59 kDa. Amylase expression increased with cell density. Protein synthesis is largely performed in the log phase, a stage where cellular constituents are synthesized at a constant rate.

Bacillus amyloliquefaciens a-amylase predominantly catalyzes the endohydrolysis of wheat starch. In addition, it may act as an a-exo-amylase. This enzyme changes the starch structure and results in an increased release of maltose and glucose.

A-amylase increases the rate of fermentation by providing additional substrates for yeast cells. Additionally, it extends the time of productive fermentation by shifting the yeast metabolism.

Despite its similarity in molecular mass, the a-amylase from sorghum grain is insensitive to high salt concentrations, making it suitable for use in starch conversion processes. Foods often contain high concentrations of salts to improve flavor and stabilize them.

a-Amylase is a starch-degrading enzyme

Amylase is a family of enzymes that hydrolyze starch to oligosaccharides. The enzyme a-amylase degrades starch by hydrolyzing its 1,4-a-glucoside bonds, while b-amylase degrades starch to release b-maltose.

Amylase activity is measured by the change in the color of starch in the presence of iodine, which is a substrate of the enzyme. Its activity is quantified by two different kinetic methods, using the enzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide and iodine.

AmyPDSBD is a member of the a-amylase family, and its B domain is one of the smallest. This elongated architecture restricts substrate access, and it forms a structural lid above the active site. Moreover, AmyPDSBD has an extended cleft that points away from the catalytic site, and it is possible that this cleft is necessary to promote the degradation of raw starch granules.

The a-amylase family of enzymes has four subtypes: endoamylases, exoamylases, and transferases. The a-amylase subgroup hydrolyzes starch molecules at boiling and high temperatures. As a result, it creates maltose, glucose, and maltotriose.

AmyP is a raw-starch-degrading enzyme with potential applications in green fuel and food processing. It preferentially digests rice starch. AmyP has a specific activity of 118.5 + 0.6 U/mg at 40 degrees Celsius, which is higher than other raw-starch enzymes. AmyP hydrolyzes ten mg of rice starch in four hours. Similarly, it takes one hour to hydrolyze 80 mg of rice starch.

Amylase starts the starch digestion process by breaking down the long-chain saccharides into smaller pieces. Each starch chain contains two to three glucose units. Amylase is a member of the glycoside hydrolase family 13 and is produced in the pancreas and saliva.

a-Amylase is a fungal amylase

A-Amylase is a natural enzyme produced by the fungal genus Aspergillus. It is a fast hydrolase that is active in the neutral, acidic or mildly alkaline pH range. However, it is not as heat resistant as bacterial amylase.

A-Amylase has many applications in diagnostic and analytical chemistry. It can be used for the determination of fungus pathogens. Many species of Aspergillus and Rhizopus are used as sources of a-amylase.

A-Amylase is useful in fermentation and in commercial starch modification. It is also used in textile processing and cleaning compounds. In addition to these uses, it can also be used as a feed supplement to compensate for a deficiency in endogenous amylase in young animals. Fungal a-amylase hydrolyzes starch and turns it into fermentable sugars, most commonly maltose.

Amylases are enzymes that break down long chains of starch to form simple sugars. In particular, a-amylase converts amylopectin into maltose and maltotriose. Amylases are found in many plants and fungi.

NFAmy13A is a thermostable a-amylase that is active at a 60-degree temperature range. These properties make NFAmy13A a suitable candidate for use in the ethanol and food industries. It is also safe, which makes it an attractive candidate for a-amylase production in the biotechnological industry.

Amylases are a vital component of many industries. They can convert starch into sugar syrups and produce cyclodextrins for pharmaceutical applications. Moreover, they are cost-efficient and consistent and require less space and time for production. In addition, amylases are widely used in the food and bioprocessing industries.

a-Amylase inhibits starch recrystallization

A-Amylase is an enzyme that causes the degradation of starch molecules and reduces them to short-chain dextrins. It acts on the a-1,4 glycosidic bonds in starch polysaccharides and requires the presence of calcium ions for stability. Hence, it inhibits starch recrystallization by preventing the formation of double helices in starch.

A-Amylase is an enzyme that is present in our digestive system and breaks down carbohydrates from our diet. It catalyzes substrate hydrolysis through a double replacement mechanism involving the formation of covalent glycosyl-enzyme intermediates and oxocarbenium ion-like transition states.

The active site contains one carboxylic acid that acts as a nucleophile and a second carboxylic acid that is used as an acid/base catalyst and stabilizes the transition states during hydrolysis.

The presence of CBM and SBS on the a-amylase surface influences its starch-binding ability. Specifically, the aromatic residues are required for interactions with the partially negatively charged hydrogen atom of the substrate.

These aromatic residues must have a specific topology and conformations that are stable. While the presence of CBM and SBS does not affect catalytic activities towards short-chain polysaccharides, they are essential for the hydrolysis of long or insoluble starch.

Barley a-amylase is a 45 kDa enzyme that plays a vital role in starch degradation during germination. It releases sugars that provide energy to the plant embryo. It also contains a 19.6-kDa bifunctional protein called BASI. BASI inhibits both AMY2 and subtilisin family proteases, and it may protect the seed from pathogens secreting these proteases.

While a-amylase is useful for starch conversion, its use is limited by economics and the availability of high purity enzymes. However, some applications may require the use of a-amylase to improve the quality of products such as bread.

a-Amylase is a multifunctional enzyme

A-Amylase is an enzyme that has several independent functions. These enzymes are also called promiscuous enzymes or moonlighting enzymes. They are capable of catalyzing unrelated but complementary side reactions.

They are usually slow compared to their main activity and exhibit relaxed substrate specificity. These enzymes are beneficial to live organisms as they help them to survive and respond to changes in the environment.

Amy63 is a multifunctional enzyme produced by the marine bacterium Vibrio alginolyticus 63. Amy63 is an a-amylase with additional carrageenan and agarase activities. Amy63 shares seven conserved regions with typical a-amylases and clusters with similar enzymes from the GH13 family.

Amylases are multifunctional enzymes that break down starch into maltose and maltotriose. They are found in plants and fungi and are derived from various biological sources. Amylases are produced from different sources, including animal pancreas, yeast, wheat, and barley. Some are produced by large-scale fermentations of Bacillus and Aspergillus species.

Amylases are metalloenzymes and require a metal cation as a cofactor. Calcium is one such cofactor. Different enzymes have different requirements and this needs to be taken into account. Analytical scales with a sensitivity of 0.0001 g are usually required for measurements. Analytical scales with lower sensitivity are also available.

Although most studies on the a-amylase enzyme are conducted on a laboratory scale, there is no guarantee that the enzyme will perform in any given situation. The best way to ensure that a-amylase is as safe and effective as possible is to ensure its purity.

A-Amylase enzymes are used in a variety of applications, including conservation. However, they have several disadvantages. Often, their concentrations are too high and cause them to become inactive. Additionally, the enzymes are inactivated by hot water or ethanol, which disrupts their tertiary structure and terminates their hydrolytic activity. This can leave residues on the artifact.


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smartest person in the world

Top 5 Smartest Person In The World

History is only created with geniuses being a part of it. Since the topic deals with compiling the list of the smartest person in the world, considering the factor of intelligence quotient, or IQ is primarily important. The ones who made it to this list had huge potential, hefty aptitude, and an elevated inclination in some particular area marked by their high level of IQ. However, this is no standard way of comparing these geniuses. The contributions that these people have made to this world are impeccable. It is impossible for normal people to bag such levels of intelligence. These people were so extraordinary that it would be a struggle for normal human beings trying to understand them. They were often denied the credit that they deserved. It was much later in life that they received the fame and credibility that they should have gotten earlier.  Who Is The Smartest Person In The World? This list of the smartest person in the world includes people who could never live up to their full potential. Lack of opportunities and restrictions of society have prevented these people from reaching the peak while they lived. However, they have made their place into the books of history with their names being written in golden letters.  1. Issac Newton (1642-1726) I am sure you have all heard about Sir Issac Newton and the famous apple story that led him to discover gravity. Sir Issac Newton was one of the smartest people in the world who gave us everything that we needed to know. He was an English-born mathematician, physicist, alchemist, and astronomer. He is considered to be one of the most extraordinary human beings that ever lived. Bagging an IQ of 193, he was the most influential scientist of all time and greatly contributed to the 17th-century scientific revolution. Contributions and Achievements:Discovered the concept of universal gravitation Discovered the laws of motion Invented the first reflecting telescope Proposed the theory of color that is visible in the spectrum and rainbow Explained the theory that color is an intrinsic property  Devised the calculus theorem Contributed to the studies of early modern chemistry2. Leonardo Da Vinci (1452-1519) Born in the time of the Italian High Renaissance, Leonardo Da Vinci was a polyhistor. Although he is most notably known as a painter, his diverse knowledge in other fields such as mathematics, architecture, sculpting, anatomy, literature, engineering, and the music was impeccable. Based on his IQ level, he was considered to be a man who was way ahead of his time. His most popular artwork, the painting of Monalisa, is an asset that he gifted the world with. I am sure now you know why he has been included in this list of the top five smartest people in the world.Contributions and Achievements:Considered to be a spirit of the Renaissance. Constructed various maps due to his in geology. Painted the portrait of Monalisa, which came to be displayed in galleries and museums across the world.  Drew the first-ever images of a helicopter, parachute, and tank. Trained to write backward. Known for his power of imagination, devising concepts, inventions, and curiosity.3. Albert Einstein (1879-1955) Born as a German-Jewish, Albert Einstein was a theoretical physicist who was considered among the greatest human beings that ever lived on this planet. He was a genius scientist and can undoubtedly be considered among the smartest person in the world. His contributions to the field of philosophy of science are made him so much influential. Contributions and Achievements:Developed the theory of general relativity. Developed the theory of special relativity. Proposed the phenomena of the photoelectric effect. Contributed to the theories of gravitational waves and gravitational lensing. Devised a model of the wormhole. Invented the mass-energy equivalence equation. 4. Aryabhatta (476 AD- 550 AD) Aryabhatta is one of the oldest geniuses that lived on this planet. Born in Pataliputa, India, he was an acclaimed mathematician-astronomer as well as a physicist. During the classical age of uprising concepts of mathematics and science, he made some tremendous contributions to these fields. His level of devising concepts and predictions is what made him be considered one of the smartest people in the world. He was the first man to make the people in India understand the science behind planetary motions. Contributions and Achievements:Composed the famous Aryabhatiya and Arya-Siddhanta. Explained the concepts of the solar eclipse and lunar eclipse. Devised formulas for calculating the areas of circles and triangles. Proposed the solution of the single-variable quadratic equation. Invented the number ‘0’ and taught how to use large numbers upto 1018. Calculated the value of ‘pi’ accurately upto the fourth decimal point. Proposed the concept of axial rotation of the earth and calculated the circumference of the earth as 62,832 miles. 5. Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) An Italian-born Galileo Galilei was another polymath who came to be considered among the smartest person in the world. He was among the ones having the highest IQ level of all time. He was also one of the most influential scientists of all time. His accomplishments made him come to be known as the “Father of Observational Astronomy” and even as the “Father of Modern Science”. His extraordinary talents even made him contribute to the fields of physics, philosophy, engineering, and mathematics.Contributions and Achievements:Invented the geometric and military compass. Constructed an improvised telescope. Proposed the concept of heliocentrism, elucidating the model of the solar system.  Made contributions and inventions in astronomical observatory including phases of venus, satellites of Jupiter, Saturn’s rings, and analysis of sunspots. Described the properties of the pendulum mechanism.Final Thoughts Without these genius minds, the world wouldn’t have been where it is today. It was not only their IQ that made them so extraordinary. But their ability to reason, capacity to think out of the world, and of course the knowledge that made them being considered the smartest person in the world. It is often said that these beings were born at the wrong time because their minds lived way ahead of their time. Nevertheless, the contributions that these geniuses made are to be remembered forever. These are milestones in the field of basic education and the basis for many discoveries. More Resources:10 Best Lifestyle Entrepreneurs Of All Time In 2021. Top 10 Best Serial Entrepreneur Of All Time – 2021 Update How Philanthropy and Entrepreneurs Are Changing The World

beard transplant

7 Things to Know If You’re Considering a Beard Transplant

In the 21 century, men give attention to their look not less than ladies. Or sometimes — even more. The world of fashion calls the shots, and a lot of men tend to go along with them.Last seasons a beard and light stubble — macho image symbols — have been on a trend. And those gentlemen who can't sprout a beard because of natural disposition finally have a solution — a beard transplant.Let's learn more about this procedure. 7 Things to Know If You're Considering a Beard Transplant 1. What is that? A beard transplant is a procedure of implanting the patient's hair from one part of the body to the beard zone for making it lush and dense according to the man's wishes. Typically, the hair covering of the bald area is provided in several steps:A patient discusses the desired shape of the beard with a doctor. The transplant is made under local anesthesia. A hair transplant specialist analyzes the donor area (typically, it's the back of the head or any other hairy part of the body). The procedure is comfortable and painless. A hair transplant specialist extracts the required amount of grafts from the discussed donor one. A specialist (or hair technician) divides the graft into separate hair follicles with microsurgical tools. A usual graft contains 1-3 hairs. An expert makes channels in the donor zone, considering the patient's hair growth. Separated hair follicles are transplanted to prepared channels.2. How many grafts? The circle beard requires between 1,200-1,500 grafts. Thу full beard takes around 3,000 grafts. 3. How much is a beard transplant? A beard transplant costs as much as a hair one.And men are ready to pay. According to the Telegraph, men are spending up to $17,790 for a beard transplant.However, it can't cost that much if you know where to look for. Prices vary from country to country. And it's entirely possible to get a high-quality beard transplant starting from $1,750 in Turkey.How much does a beard transplant cost you? — Only a hair transplant expert can tell you after consultation or at least study your photos. 4. Where to get a beard of your dream?, a medical centers aggregator website, gives the following clinics to get a beard transplant:Estetik International (Turkey) Istanbul Aesthetics (Turkey) San-Med Hair Transplant Center (Poland) Turowski Clinic (Poland) Bangkok Hospital Pattaya (Thailand) VJs Cosmetic Surgery (India).! Keep in mind that your specialist must have a certificate and experience in making the transplant. Ask for doctor's CV, check before-after photos, and read patient reviews. 5. Your beard is your health The beard is good for your health! It serves as an excellent filter that does not allow dust and pollen from flowering plants to reach you. Some men believe a thick and long beard keeps warm and protects them from colds. 6. Your new beard will need care! In 20 days, the transplanted follicles start to fall out. It's a natural process — the fallen hairs will begin to regrow. Follow your specialist's advice to save the result and healthy look of your new facial hair.Trichologists and barbers recommend taking care of your beard with oil, butter, or wax. Beard oil reduces skin irritation, especially when you are on your way of growing a beard. A beard wax softens the hair and adds volume to the beard. It dissolves in water and is easily washed off. Pay attention to your nutrition, water balance, and lifestyle. 7. Women can't resist In 2013 and 2016, American scientists conducted research which concluded that women prefer men with a beard rather clean-shaved ones. For females asked, the beard is the symbol of manhood, social maturity, status, and dominance.Read Also:Growing A Beard: How To Grow A Beard And Maintain It Reasons Why Bearded Men Look Attractive

Work-Life Balance

5 Ways to Get a Better Work-Life Balance for Remote Employees

The sudden shift from working in an office to working at home has been sudden and drastic. While managing your business is still very much possible to do remotely, you also have to consider how your teams are coping with these changes. It takes some adjusting and settling in when working remotely. While it may seem like it's a good idea at first, especially if you think of the time spent in traffic and waking up early to get ready for work, it now proves to be quite challenging for some. With that said, here's how you can get a better work-life balance.Here are 5 Ways to Get a Better Work-Life Balance for Remote Employees: 1. Stick to a working schedule When working remotely, it's tempting to lounge around all day and put off some work. This may even result in lowered productivity. Challenge yourself to still get up early and go through your morning routine. If it helps to think that you're going to work in your office, so you have a set routine, then do so. But what's important is you have a set schedule and see to it that you follow it religiously. It might take some time to get used to having a work schedule even if you're just at home but eventually you’ll get used to it.2. Check-in regularly with your teamRemember the small talks you had with your colleagues while working in between tasks? You can still make that happen. Make sure that you check in with your team every now and then. You're not the only one who's going through it alone; your colleagues are new to the idea of working from home too! So even if you can't talk to your team in-person, you can still get in touch with them instantly with team collaboration tools like Cisco Webex Teams. You can use this when you're brainstorming for an idea, discussing the next stages of your plan, or just casually checking-in with the team. With this, you can easily share files, present reports, and connect with your team without having to worry about the connection’s not being secured or having it abruptly interrupted.3. Have a dedicated workspace Have you experienced working on your bed while still in your pajamas? To some extent, it’s nice to work like this, but the bed is definitely a distraction when you're working. There's a chance that you might even be tempted to just lounge around or sleep instead of doing your work. To achieve a nice work-life balance, you should create a dedicated workspace. You can think of it like you going to your office but you're just transferring to a different room this time. In this way, you're creating that separate space that will serve as your boundaries. See to it that your workspace is free of distractions and noise so you can fully focus on what you have to accomplish. At the end of every working day, you should leave everything related to your work in your workspace.4. Eat your meals Have you ever encountered skipping your lunch or afternoon snack because you're in the zone? Don't worry; you're not the only one! Some of us are guilty of skipping meals, too. When you're working from home, it's very easy to lose track of time. It doesn't help that you're not around your colleagues and see them get up from their workstations to eat. You have to ensure that you follow your breaks. If you have a one-hour lunch break, see to it that you follow that. Don't eat in front of your computer or in your workspace. Eat your meals away from your workspace and maximize your break time. It doesn't mean that you have to work just because of your computers within your reach. Take this time to recharge your brain and rest your eyes. You'll have to deal with work after your break. It's bad enough that your home is also your work area, so put in some extra effort to set that boundary.5. Exercise regularly One of the benefits of working from home is that you don’t have to worry about commuting time and traffic. If you didn't have much time before to exercise, now you can make time for it! It's very important that you do some physical movement at least three times a week. It's enough of a sedentary lifestyle that you’re working at home; and, it's really tempting to be a couch potato. But after sitting in front of the computer for at least 8 hours, and just walking around the house, your body deserves some more TLC! Besides, exercise releases endorphins, which can help you feel relaxed and at ease with your stress levels. If you still think you can't make time for it, remember about the time you’ve saved from not traveling to and from work!Bottomline Now that most of us are working remotely, it's important to prioritize work-life balance. You are literally working and resting in your home, which makes it hard to establish that boundary of when to stop working and start resting. It may just be a temporary set-up, but you still have to make the most out of it. The last thing that you want to happen is for your productivity or rest to be compromised just because you weren't able to set your boundaries. Learn how to draw the line on where work starts and the rest ends. The tips written above are five simple but effective ways on how you can achieve that work-life balance. Read Also:Work from wherever you want Five things to consider before starting a Business Top 10 Apps for Team Communication and Remote Work